A Brave New World

April 9, 2015 | Russ Spitler
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Dealing with Security Monitoring in Amazon Web Services (AWS)

Note: The product mentioned in this blog, AlienVault USM for AWS, is no longer being sold. Learn more here.

As you know, AlienVault just launched USM for AWS and we are very excited about bringing value and controls to AWS users in securing their environments. Here is some of the thinking that helped us form the product.

As we move to a world where we are virtualizing everything, automating as much as we can through an API and renting compute power by the hour, our whole operational model starts to change. I am sure we are all familiar with the opportunity afforded us when we can backup our databases with a simple API call and scale our web servers to handle bursts of traffic without any intervention, but with this new world also comes a new set of responsibilities for us to address from a security standpoint. In EC2, we make a tradeoff: for the automation we love, we now share the responsibility for security with someone else - Amazon.

The Shared Security Model

Security in Amazon EC2 is the shared responsibility of the user and Amazon. This of course makes perfect sense in the grand scheme of things - there are things only an end user can do and there are things that only Amazon can do in this environment. The user is responsible for securing the operating systems running on their instances, as well as the applications running on those operating systems. Amazon is responsible for physical security as well as the security of the hypervisor. The responsibility for the network is shared between the user and amazon.

Implications of the Shared Security Model

When we relinquish our control of the full stack we gain huge operational efficiencies but we also lose the flexibility to do things completely as we wish. We have seen huge security issues arise as organizations struggle to handle this change. Our approach to threat detection and incident response needs to adjust as we work in this new environment.

Loss of Traditional Security Controls

When we share responsibility for the network layer, our ability to use some of the tried and true security controls like IDS and vulnerability scanners is limited. In EC2, Amazon is responsible for the network routing and segmentation between customers – things like making sure all your traffic gets to your systems and preventing one customer from seeing another’s traffic.

In the implementation of this restriction, Amazon has prevented end users from easily gaining access to all network traffic in their EC2 environment (traditionally captured from a SPAN or TAP). The implication of this is that the ability to deploy any security monitoring and controls that rely on network traffic - network IDS, netflow analysis, etc - is severely limited. While some attempt to replicate this by capturing all network traffic locally on the hosts running in their environment and analyzing in a centralized location, this approach is error prone and has severe implications on the network load of the environment as all traffic is replicated as it is sent to the centralized location for analysis.

Another problem arises with the use of vulnerability or asset discovery scanners. The nature of these scanners is to replicate the traffic of malicious activity in order to confirm the presence of vulnerabilities in the systems we run. In environments we fully control we can easily determine when these tools are being run by employees performing routine security checks and differentiate from when the tools are being used maliciously. However, in EC2, Amazon monitors the network layer for this activity to help detect malicious behavior. This means that in order for us to leverage these technologies in EC2 we must first notify Amazon when and from where the tools will be used. I hope that this process will be automated in the future, but for now you have to fill out a PDF. This makes the use of these technologies incredibly inconvenient at best and practically infeasible.

New Security Features

Across the board, as new capabilities are introduced, new security features are required. While new security features are an opportunity to improve the inherent security of an environment, it is necessary for the end user to understand and appropriately leverage these new features. The introduction of new features always leaves a gap in security as end users become familiar and acclimated to their use.

The most obviously misunderstood security feature in Amazon AWS is the EC2 Security Groups (and of course in their other forms as well - ElastiCache, RDS, etc.). These security groups are a very powerful feature for controlling port-level network access to any of your running instances. The issue arises due to their seemingly familiar nature. With little effort, a user can expose services to the public internet. In a traditional environment, the effort it would take to put a database onto the internet is substantial - punching through one or two routers and a firewall. With security groups, with the process is dangerously simple: a single configuration update. We'll be posting a blog soon with more on this, but in a recent analysis we found that in the US East region more than 20,000 databases allowed anyone on the internet to access them.

Dynamic Environment

Whether we want it to be or not, Amazon EC2 is a very dynamic environment. Some users design their systems for this in order to elastically scale with demand, other users find that their systems simply require restart, and redeployment to operate effectively in EC2. The implication of this for security monitoring and incident response is quite substantial. In traditional environments, identifiers such as IP addresses can be relied upon for forensic analysis and systems are relatively static, meaning that an incident that first started in weeks past will likely have evidence resident on systems still operating. In a dynamic environment, these assumptions are not valid. Our security monitoring must provide a concrete relationship between captured security data and the instances running in the environment and must dynamically collect data for use in incident response.

API

The last consideration in this environment is a major one. All actions taken in this environment are controlled by the Amazon API. While this provides us the automation we need, it also means that a malicious user of this API could cause substantial damage in very short order. In traditional environments we address these concerns by restricting physical access to our machines and if we use things like IPMI we (hopefully) restrict its access to a dedicated management network. It is with the same seriousness that we must protect, monitor and control access to the Amazon API.

Summary

We have some substantial new considerations for effective threat detection and incident response in environments such as Amazon AWS. There is huge opportunity for an inherently more secure world, but we need to adapt our approaches and learn some new tricks in order to realize this promise. Without alternative approaches to address the limitations of our operational access to the environment, we are left blind to entire classes of threats. Without cross-checking the use of the new security features, we are left to trust that our operators are fully aware of all of the security implications of every AWS feature. Without collecting data with an understanding of the dynamic nature of the EC2 environment, we are left with too little too late when it comes time to investigate an incident. And most importantly, without addressing the critical nature of the API we are left exposed to remote attackers in ways we have never been in the past. All of these considerations come into play when designing an effective threat detection system for Amazon EC2. We have a great opportunity for a more secure future in these types of environments, but we cannot rely on the same approach of the past.

This has been part of the process behind the new AlienVault offering - USM for AWS. With the considerations outlined above, AlienVault has created an entirely new offering that is native to AWS. This provides deep integration with with the Amazon API to address the shortcomings of more traditional technology ported from brick and mortar data-centers. In addition, it provides a completely new AWS Infrastructure Assessment engine to detect insecure configurations and help users audit their environments. This is a major step forward for those trying to gain visibility and detect malicious activity in these environments. We encourage everyone who has tried to manage security in AWS to try it out with our free 15 day trial. Read more on the product solution page and check out the brief video.

Russ Spitler

About the Author: Russ Spitler

Russell Spitler brings over a decade of experience building products and startup companies that secure companies across the globe. Russ currently serves as the AVP of Products at AT&T Cybersecurity where he is responsible for cybersecurity product strategy and the execution of the cybersecurity product roadmap that has resulted in the acquisition of over 7,000 commercial customers and over 20,000 open source users during his tenure. Russ was also one of the founders and a driving force behind AlienVault's Open Threat Exchange- a crowd-sourced threat intelligence community with over 100,000 active users from more than 140 countries. His leadership and focus on practical and effective threat detection has helped establish AlienVault's open-source and commercial products as an undisputed industry leader. Prior to AT&T, Russell served in engineering and product management roles at Fortify Software. Russ was instrumental in developing and maturing the Fortify product suite that dominated the application security testing market earning the leadership position in the Gartner MQ for 11 straight years. Fortify's 750+ customers included all 10 of the world's 10 largest banks and all the major branches and agencies within the US DoD. Russell frequently contributes articles and quotes for major news outlets and regularly presents at industry conferences such as RSA, and BlackHat.

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